Ulla’s Amazing Wee Blog

January 31, 2006

What justifications are there for restrictions which a system of copyright entails on the freedom to use the creative works of others?

Filed under: Writing — Ulla @ 5:15 pm

Copyright are exclusive rights by which creative works is protected from unauthorised use, sharing, modification, share of modifications and creation of derivative works. It grants a monopoly to creative workers for limited time for their own endeavours. The justification for copyright is given [1] as to recognise the labour of the creator, strive a balance between the intrests of users and creators as well as to balance the interest of the public with the rights of the creator. The owner of the work is identified and deserves attribution as well as the reward for his efforts. Another justification is the incentive to create more creative works and to ensure that better results by devoting time and energy will be produced in future, because of the creators being able to rely on Copyright as the legal framework for the protection of their works.[1]

<meta name="GENERATOR" content="OpenOffice.org 2.0 (Linux)" /><meta name="CREATED" content="20051204;16184100" /><meta name="CHANGED" content="20051205;8130100" /><br /> <style> <!-- @page { size: 8.5in 11in; margin: 0.79in } P { margin-bottom: 0.08in } --></style> <p>This method superseeded patronage as a funding method to make a living and enabled creative workers to benefit directly from their products. Copyright is often refered to as protecting the moral rights of creators, with the two key reasons given as the right to attribution and the right not to have work destroyed or altered without the creators permission. [2] However, in the U.S. Constitution the main purpose and aim of Copyright is described as<em> “to promote progress in science, culture, and technologyâ€?</em>[4].<br /> Creative works included under Copyright legislation comprises literacy works including software and databases, dramatic works including performances, music and sound recordings, movies, and broadcasts both on radio and television, art works like paintings and photographs, and some designs, such as typographic arrangements in publications, but excluding trademarks.[1]<br /> The development of the copyright laws started off with the industrial development of the printing press as well as the establishment of secular universities with a broader hunger for knowledge by merchants wanting to trade further away from home and obtain information about business developments.[2]<br /> In 1710 the Statue of Anne laid the foundations for the modern copyright law. It seems that the necessity for this Statue was to ensure that the consumers were protected from variations of literacy works put out by publishers, and to ensure the authors retained exclusive rights rather than the publishers. [2]<br /> The duration of the copyright then was 28 years after which the works passed into the public domain. Today, even one of the fierest critics of modern copyright law, Dr. Lawrence Lessig from Stanford University, still argues in general for the copyright protection set up by the Statue of Anne on Slashdot [3]:<br /> <em>“I am not against copyright. I think the copyright our framers gave us, for example (a term of 14 years, renewable once; granted only if you register; for limited kinds of work; and protecting a limited range of rights) was a bit weak, but not much. I would favor a somewhat stronger right than they gave us, but for just about as long.“</em><br /> Dr. Lawrence Lessig, who tried to overturn the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act in the US Supreme High Court in the case Eldred v. Ashcroft, points out some arguments for copyright legislation:<em><br /> “ But we should not be calling for the repeal of all copyright. We should be calling for a balanced and limited form of copyright – much like the right of our framers – that gives artists the right to earn a living, without giving copyright hoarders the power to veto innovation.â€?</em>[3]Further reasons for copyright regulations are to maintain the creators’ ethical, interpretational and qualitative wishes about the use of their work .<br /> <em>“Those who represented the estate of Dr. Seuss (Theodore Geisel) argued that it was better to leave control of his work in the hands of his estate than to allow it to fall into the public domain, where people could use it to ‘glorify drugs or to create pornography.’ The Gershwin estate had a similar rationale for its ‘protection’ of the work of George Gershwin. His estate refuses, for example, to license Porgy and Bess to anyone who does not use African-Americans in the cast. That’s its view of how this part of American culture should be controlled, and it wanted this law to help it maintain that control.â€?</em> [6]<br /> Copyright ensures that the exclusive rights of the creator are respected. These rights are the <em>“rights of reproduction, distribution, rental and lending, performance in public, communication to the public, adaptation and authorization. “</em>[1]</p> <p>In the Copyright regulation the freedom to use other people’s creative work has the status as exception. This includes fair dealing: research or private study, for reviews or reporting current events. For fair dealing as a defense in court, the reasons for the breach of copyright and who benefited from it are considered, the means of obtaining the work, the amount taken as no more than necessary is allowed, the consequenses, if there has been any acknowlegment of the work used and the use of the copyrighted work. Other defences for copyright breaches are disclosure in the public intrest, incidental use, library and educational use or public administration. For film and sound recordings, further exceptions of copyright legislation are recording for the purpose of supervision, such as radio stations are obliged to record their broadcast in case of controversy for the governmental regulator Ofcom, the BBC has also the right of recording for archival purposes and since the US Supreme Court case in 1984 titled Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios Inc., it is acknowledged that private users have the right to record free-air broadcasts for ‘Time-Shifting’ purposes under the fair use defence to use at a more convenient time.<br /> As the Electronic Frontier Foundation describes, the ruling in the ‘Time-Shifting’ court case had also been used as a model for defense in the Napster Peer-to-Peer Filesharing court case. But in contrast to the Betamax case, Napster was ordered to rewrite its software to prevent copyright infringement. <em>“It imposes liability when a third party has the right and ability to supervise the infringing activity and also has a direct financial interest in such activities. Despite Napster’s lack of a business model, the court found it financially benefited because the availability of the music acted as a draw for future customers.â€?</em>[8] According to Wikipedia [9] Napster had at peak times 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.<br /> However, Copyright regulations are not just restrictions for users of creative works, they also ensure rights for the creator of the works. <em>“The phrase ‘exclusive right’ means that only the copyright holder is free to exercise the attendant rights, and others are prohibited from doing (…) (so). Copyright is often called a ‘negative right’, as it serves to prohibit (…), rather than permit (…) .â€?</em> The collaborate dictionary Wikipedia continues to discuss the ethics of Copyright, and if it is a property right or a moral right. [7] <em>“Many argue that copyright does not exist merely to restrict third parties from publishing ideas and information, and that defining copyright purely as a negative right is contrary to the public policy objective of encouraging authors to create new works and enrich the public domain.â€?</em></p> <p>Extended Copyright regulations have now made it possible to further define the wishes of authors and artists more precisely via the Creative Commons Licenses, which<em> “offers flexible copyright licenses for creative works. We have built upon the ‘all rights reserved’ of traditional copyright to create a voluntary ‘some rights reserved’ copyright.“</em>[5] Creative Commons Licenses give permission for certain usage of creative works in advance under certain conditions. In the internet age, this allows creative collaboration over space and time with people who have never met. The authors can in advance define if they want to allow copying, distribution or modification of their work, derivative works and if they insist on acknowledgement. They can even decide on their prefered mixture of retaining rights and granting freedoms:<br /> For example my favourite is the <em>“NonCommercial-ShareAlikeâ€?</em> License, which allows users to <em>“to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and to make derivative works but only under the following conditions; Non-Commercial: You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Share Alike: If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a licence identical to this one. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.â€?</em></p> <p>For Software, the Free Software Foundation offers the GNU General Public Licence to the coders of free software, in particular for GNU/Linux based programms. [11] The Free Software Foundation state in its preamble:<em> “We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.â€?</em></p> <p>The UK Copyright Service points out a similar system of [10] granting rights to users in advance by attaching copyright notices further defining the intentions of the creators, from <em>“All rights reservedâ€?</em> to<em> “Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use onlyâ€?</em> to <em>“May be used free of charge.â€?</em></p> <p><strong>Bibliography:</strong></p> <p>[1] Notes</p> <p>[2] Wikipedia: <a target="_blank" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright</a></p> <p>[3] Slashdot article: Lawrence Lessig Answers Your Questions, 21.12.2001, <a target="_blank" href="http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=01/12/21/155221">http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=01/12/21/155221</a></p> <p>[4] US constitution:<br /> <em>“To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.â€?</em><br /> U.S. Constitution: Article I, Section 8.</p> <p>[5] Creative Commons License: <a target="_blank" href="http://creativecommons.org/">http://creativecommons.org/</a> ,</p> <p>[6] <a target="_blank" href="http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/March-April-2004/story_lessig_marapr04.msp">http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/March-April-2004/story_lessig_marapr04.msp</a></p> <p>[8] Electronic Frontier Foundation, Robin D. Gross EFF Staff Attorney for Intellectual Property,<br /> <em>“9th Circuit Napster Ruling Requires P2P Developers Ensure No One Misuses Their Systemsâ€?,</em> 26.2.2002, <a target="_blank" href="http://www.eff.org/IP/P2P/Napster/20010226_rgross_nap_essay.html">http://www.eff.org/IP/P2P/Napster/20010226_rgross_nap_essay.html</a></p> <p>[7] Wikipedia, <a target="_blank" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright#.22All_rights_reserved.22">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright#.22All_rights_reserved.22</a></p> <p>[9] Wikipedia, <a target="_blank" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster</a></p> <p>[10] Factsheet No. P-03, Issued: August 2000, Last amended: 11th August 2004, Examples of copyright statements, <a target="_blank" href="http://copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p03_copyright_notices">http://copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p03_copyright_notices</a></p> <p>[11] GNU GPL, <a target="_blank" href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html">http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html</a></p> <p>This work licensed under the Creative Commons NonCommercial-ShareAlike 1.0 License.</p> </div> <div class="feedback"> <span>Comments Off</span> </div> </div> <div class="post-164 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-writing" id="post-164"> <h3 class="storytitle"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/2006/01/31/it-is-easy-to-write-opinions-but-it-is-difficult-to-report-facts/" rel="bookmark">“It is easy to write opinions, but it is difficult to report facts”</a></h3> <div class="meta">Filed under: <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/writing/" rel="category tag">Writing</a> — Ulla @ 4:29 pm </div> <div class="storycontent"> <p>Behind the privacy of the closed doors of media corporations and the friendly smile of the receptionists an eternal and from the public hidden battle is raging. News reporters and columnists each insist their job is the most difficult in the journalist profession and compete for public and professional recognition. Mark M., former foreign correspondent for the Reuters news agency states:<em> “It is easy to write opinions, but it is difficult to report facts”?</em>. He adds with a smile <em>“But you have 800 words to convince me otherwise.”?</em></p> <p><em>“Now that the facts are free, comment costs?”</em>, counters Cristina Odone in her Media Guardian article about the <em>“rise of the supercolumnists</em>.<br /> <em>Facts are no longer sacred and are free, thanks to Google and Wikipedia.</em><br /> Cristina Odone further points out that columnists are not shying away from <em>passing judgment</em> whereas news reporters fear being attacked as <em>“biased”?</em>.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong></p> <p>Regarding simple stories, Mark M.’s statement is undoubtedly true. Factual reporting requires research, which is more time-intensive than opinion pieces. Furthermore, investigative news reporters also need to be able to proof their facts are true. “<em>Partial truths are insufficient in defamation cases and the burden to proof the truth lies on the defender.”</em> teaches Douglas M., lecturer in Media Law.<br /> Especially war and foreign correspondents often gather news and information for reporting under difficult, psychologically and physically hard and threatening circumstances.<br /> Benjamin Joffe-Walt reports from China an attack on a human rights activist who is nearly beaten to death before his very own eyes: <em>Then it hit me: I’d done absolutely nothing to save Lu Banglie. I stood there watching. I’m trained as a medic, and I did absolutely nothing to save Lu Banglie. Absolutely nothing.</em></p> <p>Another aspect of the complexity of the task is the extraction of facts at first. Facing public relation statements for new products, finding any flaws or negative elements will be incredibly tough. As the PR Newswire Publicity state, the influence of PR is huge:<em> PR newswire. The leading source of news from corporations worldwide for media.</em><br /> Other obstructions to access the facts can be exercised via different means by government, authorities or multi-national corporations to protect their interests and their public image. This can be like in the gulf wars, restricting access of journalists to areas, embed them into the military, create fake stories, like in the case of the nurse <em>Najirahâ</em> in the first gulf war, or restrict information flow or access to information. The facts have to be carefully evaluated and their relevancy has to be examined to be put accordingly into context for news articles. As Kovach and Rosenstiel point out in their book about the Elements of Journalism: <em>Propaganda will select facts or invent them to serve the real purpose “ persuasion and manipulation.<br /> </em></p> <p><strong>Contra:</strong></p> <p>Writing opinions might be easy if the author, the owner of the publication and the employed editor hold the same opinions. However, it is far more difficult in any other case. Robert Fisk left the Times, he says, <em>because of the quality of journalism demanded by Times owner Rupert Murdoch. I would not accept the Murdoch ethos. Over and over again, I was writing against the paper’s presumptions. I was in the odd situation where the Times didn’t want me to leave but they would find themselves embarrassed at the content of what I wrote.<br /> </em>It depends also for which publication the author writes. In an academic publication facts are not the main focus, the opinions concluded and proven are the main priority for progress. This is important for specialist areas, such like history, too. Horst Stowasser, for example, writes in his book <em>Leben ohne Chef und Staat</em> (translation: <em>“Life without boss nor state”</em>) one story in three different styles: as a short story, historical report and commentary, pointing out the ethical lessons to be learned and used for the future in the later.<em> Die strikte Einteilung Story/Geschichte/Moral soll jedem zeigen, wo Phantasie, Fakten und Interpretation beginnen und enden</em> (translation: The strict separation of story, history and ethics shall show everybody where fantasy, facts and interpretation start and finish.).<br /> Commentaries which get reader thinking and leave the audience considering or even convinced of other points of view are difficult to write and might even be more work, time-intensive in preparing the structure and use of language than reporting simple events based on facts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>So is the statement true or not? Are opinions easier to write than reporting facts? It is tricky to answer generally, so it comes down to asking people individually about their personal preference between factual news reporting or writing commentaries and what they find for themselves more difficult. The individual will know the answer, depending on his or her interests and what (s)he finds more enjoyable. But whatever the journalistic task, what is most important is to face the upcoming challenges and difficulties. To keep and strive to improve your own integrity, to avoid compromising your conscience, – in news reporting and in commentary.</p> <div align="center"><strong>Bibliography:</strong></div> <p>1.) The Guardian, Media Guardian, Monday, October 3, 2005, page 7, Cristina Odone: <em>“The rise and rise of the supercolumnist”?</em></p> <p>2.) Kovach, Rosenstiel: <em>The elements of Journalism</em>, Atlantic Books, London 2001,</p> <p>3.) Steven: <em>The No-Nonsense guide to Global Media</em>, New Internationalists & Verso, London & Oxford 2003,</p> <p>4.) Stowasser: <em>Leben ohne Chef und Staat</em>, Karin Kramer Verlag, Berlin 1993</p> <p>5.) McChesney, Nichols:<em> Our Media, not theirs</em>, Seven Stories Press, New York 2002</p> <p>6.) Keeble: <em>Ethics for Journalistsâ</em>, Routledge, New York 2001</p> <p>7.) The Guardian, Monday, October 10, 2005, front page, Jonathan Watts: <em>Mob attack key Chinese democrat</em></p> <p>8.) Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland:<em> X fuer U – Bilder die luegen</em>, Bouvier Verlag Bonn, 2000</p> </div> <div class="feedback"> <span>Comments Off</span> </div> </div> <h2>January 28, 2006</h2> <div class="post-163 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-general" id="post-163"> <h3 class="storytitle"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/2006/01/28/fluffy/" rel="bookmark">Fluffy</a></h3> <div class="meta">Filed under: <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/general/" rel="category tag">General</a> — Ulla @ 12:49 pm </div> <div class="storycontent"> <p>Got a hamster yesterday, called it <em>“Fluffy”,</em> as it has still its baby hamster fluff, it is about 8 weeks old. <em>Fluffy</em> settled in really well. It is grey and brown with some white spots and really cute. [<a target="_blank" href="http://www.hamsters-uk.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=viewarticle&artid=97&page=1">Hamster colours</a>]<br /> It went straight up to me and nibbled on my finger, and without any problem curiously went into the cardboard box, too.<br /> It never had seen a wheel, but it pretty quickly found out how to use it and after about half an hour started to exercise the whole night. I hope I will be encouraged to exercise with him on my treadmill, to keep fit, too.<br /> It also started to like the nibbly nutstick at once, but refused its house – which is more a wooden hamster villa- till it got really tired. It likes its corners, too. I am not sure which gender <em>Fluffy </em>is, need to find out when it is more tame, but we were thinking it is probably male.<br /> It is still suspicious of fresh veggies though – gave a little bit of pepper, cucumber and carrot for it to choose and a little bit of hard bread but he ignores it all so far.<br /> There is a <a target="_blank" href="http://www.babyboos.com/index.htm">hamster rescue</a>, taming, boarding and <a target="_blank" href="http://www.babyboos.com/index_files/policy.htm">adoption service</a> for hamsters by a small hamstery in Scotland, too. There is a broad <a target="_blank" href="http://www.hamstercentral.com/forum/">hamster forum</a> recommended for all things hamstery and in Britain there is apparantly the more formal <a target="_blank" href="http://www.britishhamsterassociation.org.uk/index.php">British Hamster Association</a>, and the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.hamsoc.org.uk/varieties.php">Hamster Society</a> .<br /> Unfortunately I still can not find out what breed <em>Fluffy</em> would fall under, only which ones he wouldn’t, he is just impossible to classify. I wonder if he is short-haired or a rex, but guess am only able to find out with time when he is a little bit older.<br /> Here is another <a target="_blank" href="http://www.animalrescuers.co.uk/html/rabferr.html">Animal Rescue Website</a>, as poor hamsters, mice and guinea pigs are also used as food for big snakes. Friends of mine once rescued a whole lot of baby guinea pigs from the purpose of being snake fodder, as they did some work experience with the zoo. However, if I remember correctly some of the guinea piglets were some years later killed – but not eaten- by a naughty German shephard dog.</p> </div> <div class="feedback"> <span>Comments Off</span> </div> </div> <h2>January 26, 2006</h2> <div class="post-162 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-general" id="post-162"> <h3 class="storytitle"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/2006/01/26/booking-problems/" rel="bookmark">Book(ing) problems</a></h3> <div class="meta">Filed under: <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/general/" rel="category tag">General</a> — Ulla @ 1:32 pm </div> <div class="storycontent"> <p>At the moment I am reading an autobiography by <a target="_blank" href="http://greatreporter.com/mambo/content/view/57/2/">John Simpson</a>, the BBC <a target="_blank" href="http://www.nyt.co.uk/john-simpson.htm">World Affairs Editor</a>. It is quite interesting and I found out I like autobiographies much more than biographies, which are most of the time factual, but boring. Review will appear here shortly, as I have already a lot to say about it.<br /> And finally after 4 weeks, I got my <a target="_blank" href="http://www.journalonline.co.uk/article/1000787.aspx"><em>“Scot’s Law for Journalists”</em></a> and the Guradian style guide. After trying for months to order it from <a target="_blank" href="http://www.word-power.co.uk/">WordPower</a>, Edinburgh’s radical, independent bookshop, who were unable to obtain it, whilst all my collegues already got it from <a target="_blank" href="http://www.amazon.co.uk/">Amazon</a>, (also <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/wp-admin/heregister.co.uk/2003/08/15/amazon_faces_tribunal_over_trade/">anti-trade-union</a>) I switched over to order it on the web because I hoped I would get it before the Law exam, but unfortunately something went wrong – I neither had a parcel number, nor ever got a card from DHL the transport company, and only was able to make some progress by stopping a driver from DHL on the road asking for contact details. Even then had to put a whole load of time and investigative research into it. Now, I always thought that ordering by web should <a target="_blank" href="http://abgeschmackt.blog.intrinet.de/vermischtes/">simplify</a> things not make it more complicated. Now I defintely prefer bookshops to ordering online and <a target="_blank" href="http://www.bordersstores.co.uk">Borders</a> in Glasgow is actually the best for Journalism. Just googling for the website and found out, that it is, according to the socialists, who tend to hype up things though, that it is <a target="_blank" href="http://www.labournet.net/ukunion/9912/borders10.html">vigorously anti-union</a>.<br /> Will ask next time I visit.</p> <p>Have to run now as want to go over to Glasgow today to sort out the Indymedia bank account after several years of (in)existance, go to the book presentation about the G8 and see the exhibition<a target="_blank" href="http://www.radicalendar.org/calendar/imcscotland/all/display/38655/index.php?view=event&fulldate=2006-01-23"> <em>“Where the truth lies”</em></a> (slightly stupid title imho but at least one member of the collective is obsessed with THE TRUTH whichever it may be…), do some audio editing, need to drop of some magazines and stuff at the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.womens-library.org.uk/">Glasgow’s Women’s Library</a> and hope to go to Borders to pick up a media directory and scan for new books.</p> <p>Also I would really need to wite some articles for newspapers, and do some audio for community radio, however, writing for web is just so much more easy as mistakes are so much easier rectified than for print.</p> </div> <div class="feedback"> <span>Comments Off</span> </div> </div> <h2>January 22, 2006</h2> <div class="post-161 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-general" id="post-161"> <h3 class="storytitle"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/2006/01/22/video-workshop-on-encoding/" rel="bookmark">Video Workshop on Encoding</a></h3> <div class="meta">Filed under: <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/general/" rel="category tag">General</a> — Ulla @ 2:21 pm </div> <div class="storycontent"> <p>Yesterday, some nice <a target="_blank" href="http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/regions/manchester/">Indymedia Manchester</a>,<a target="_blank" href="http://www.indymedia.org.uk/"> Indymedia UK</a>, <a target="_blank" href="http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/static/video.html">Video Indymedia</a> people came up to Edinburgh to do a workshop with a community video group on how to encode videos for the web. Training resources and some video clips can be found <a target="_blank" href="http://clearerchannel.org/resources.html">here</a>.</p> <p>We got a new book <em>“The Video Activist’s Toolkit”</em> for free from the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.commedia.org.uk/">Community Media Association</a>, and it was a fantastic workshop which was as usually well organised despite without hardly any funding but was still free for the participants.</p> <p>Today the same workshop will take place at the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.camcorderguerillas.net/">Camcorder Guerillas</a> Office at the GMAC in Glasgow.</p> </div> <div class="feedback"> <span>Comments Off</span> </div> </div> <a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/2006/01/page/2/" >Older Posts »</a> <!-- begin footer --> </div> <!-- begin sidebar --> <div id="menu"> <ul> <li class="pagenav">Pages:<ul><li class="page_item page-item-2"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/about/">About this Blog</a></li> </ul></li> <li id="linkcat-10" 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and sucessfull cameraman.">Jason Parkinson</a></li> <li><a href="http://jeremydear.blogspot.com/" title="NUJ general secretary">Jeremy Dear</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.johnpilger.com/">John Pilger</a></li> <li><a href="http://blogs.channel4.com/snowblog/blogs/snowblog/">Jon Snow</a></li> <li><a href="http://onlinejournalismblog.com/" title="lecturer in Online Journalism and NUJ 2007 ADM blog organiser" target="_blank">Paul Bradshaw</a></li> <li><a href="http://thenoseinvestigates.wordpress.com/" title="tom allan’s stuff" target="_blank">The Nose Investigates</a></li> <li><a href="http://tmgerlach.wordpress.com/" rel="co-worker" title="Nuremberg Journalism lecturer’s blog" target="_blank">tgerlach</a></li> </ul> </li> <li id="linkcat-9" class="linkcat">Local Blogs <ul class='xoxo blogroll'> <li><a href="http://devilgate.livejournal.com/" title="Being the opinionated but shockingly infrequent ramblings of Martin, who is known in some quarters as devilgate.">Devilgate 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Haze Cannabis Coffee Shop, famous lefty writer (also of speeches for Thommy Sheridan, SSP)">The Scottish Patient</a></li> </ul> </li> <li id="linkcat-12" class="linkcat">My pages <ul class='xoxo blogroll'> <li><a href="http://ulla.movingpages.org">CV pages</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.fempages.org">Feminist Pages (2001)</a></li> <li><a href="http://muirhouse.wordpress.com/" title="Website of the Muirhouse and Salvesen Community Council" target="_blank">Muirhouse-Salvesen Community Council</a></li> <li><a href="http://gallery.fempages.org">My Gallery</a></li> </ul> </li> <li id="linkcat-8" class="linkcat">Political Blogs <ul class='xoxo blogroll'> <li><a href="http://colonos.wordpress.com/">Amazonian Adventures</a></li> <li><a href="http://annalist.noblogs.org/" rel="acquaintance colleague" title="Insightful German Political Blog." target="_blank">Berlin Anna</a></li> <li><a href="http://ddjohnston.wordpress.com/" target="_blank">D.D.Johnston</a></li> <li><a href="http://dreaming-neon-black.blogspot.com/" title="Links to me, so I link back.">Dreaming Neon Black</a></li> <li><a href="http://chanfles.com/blog/">El Chanfles!</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.fsf.org/blogs/">Free Software Foundation Blogs</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.infoshop.org/blogs.html">Infoshop Bloggers</a></li> <li><a href="http://mollymew.blogspot.com/" title="Molly links to me, so I link back!">Molly’s Blog</a></li> <li><a href="http://itsmefumingrightsinit.blogspot.com/" title="Pennie’s Blog." target="_blank">Pennie</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.anarchogeek.com/">Rabbles Blog</a></li> <li><a href="http://blog.j12.org">Space Bunny’s Blog</a></li> <li><a href="http://blog.stewarthomesociety.org/" target="_blank">Stewart Home</a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="categories">Categories:<ul> <li class="cat-item cat-item-6"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/deutsch/" title="Articles in german.">Deutsch</a> </li> <li class="cat-item cat-item-1"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/general/" title="General news and views. Includes old postings from archive.">General</a> </li> <li class="cat-item cat-item-2"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/podcasts/" title="A collection of audio files to download.">Podcasts</a> </li> <li class="cat-item cat-item-5"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/reviews/" title="Reviews of books, films, and other informative and qualitative stories.">Reviews</a> </li> <li class="cat-item cat-item-7"><a href="http://blog.fempages.org/wp/category/translations/" title="Translations of german articles into english or english articles into german. 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